Lassa fever outbreaks are capable of spreading fast causing large-scale outbreaks and panic. Apart from the fact that epidemic preparedness is a statutorily mandated service, a delayed service can lead to loss of lives, public health, social and economic consequences of an outbreak, especially if not prepared for. Surveillance which simply defined as the close obversation of disease occurance while epidemiology deals with the spread and control of Lassa Fever and VHS.The major problem is that Lassa fever can be mistakenly diagonised as typhoid, maleria or any other infections. Rodent-to-human transmission is achieved through the “multimammate rat” Mastomys species complex causing the disease.
Following the sensitization of health authorities and partners across the country, at the beginning of the epidemic season, dissemination to health facilities of technical guidelines and data collection and reporting tools for Intergrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) and preposition drugs and personal protective equipment at state and Local Government Area levels are important and should be included. Surveillance, to detect timely any unusual event should be enhanced through the collection of relevant information for action. Lassa fever epidemics becomes very important through distribution of case definition or posters and brochures.
From the onset of the outbreak, WHO Nigeria deployed staff from the national and state levels to support the Government of Nigeria’s national Lassa fever Emergency Operations Centre and state surveillance activities. The prevention and control of Lassa fever will include village-based programs for rodent control and avoidance, hospital training programs to prevent the nosocomial spread, including barrier nursing, diagnostic technology transfer, and specific antiviral chemotherapy(ribavirin). Rodent control would focus on proper storage of food in rodent-proof containers, cleaning around homes, trapping, and killing rodents with appropriate and safe disposal of carcasses and avoiding rodents as a food source. Therefore the results here are preliminary.
Preparing to respond to epidemic in the case of Lassa fever is an important part of health-care delivery services. In order to solve this issues, there will be need to conduct intensive training, technical support, orientation of staff, supervision, monitor trends in disease reporting and distribute data collection and management tools. Finally, another important area to plan for during epidemics is communication and social mobilization, and also the listing down of plans and neccesary actions to be taken.There is a great need to be informed appropriately about this Lassa fever.